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1189 – European Crusaders launched the Siege of Acre against Saladin's Ayyubid dynasty in present day northern Israel, by which the Christians achieved a conclusive triumph amid the Third Crusade nearly two years later.
Ultimately Richard the Lionheart and his army, which included the Knights Templar, made considerable headway throughout the region, and Saladin himself failed to defeat Richard in any military engagement.
1609 – English maritime explorer Henry Hudson, for lack of a better way of describing it, discovered the Delaware Bay. Initially selected by the Dutch East India Company to find an easterly passage to Asia, Hudson was unable to complete the predetermined route due to excessive ice blockage.
Hudson redirected while he and his crew were near Norway's North Cape and pointed his ship west to find another passage, this time through North America. Hudson landed in the Bay some three months later.
1845 – The first issue of Scientific American is published. After 166 years, the magazine can boast of a circulation that approaches three-quarters of a million.
1862 – Outnumbered by 12,000 troops, Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia engaged U.S. Army Maj. General John Pope and his Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run/Second Manassas. The South earned a decisive victory two days later.
1898 – Though Coca-Cola gets all the press for being a uniquely Southern beverage, a pharmacist named Caleb Bradham developed the recipe for what would become known as Pepsi-Cola at a drug store in New Bern, North Carolina. PepsiCo was incorporated four years later, which, at present, generates net revenues that exceed $40 billion annually.
1957 – Senator Strom Thurmond (D-SC) began a filibuster to prevent the Senate from voting on Civil Rights Act of 1957. He stopped speaking 24 hours and 18 minutes later, which remains longest filibuster ever conducted by a single Senator.
1965 – The lovely and vivacious Shania Twain was born in Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
1981 – The Centers for Disease Control revealed a high rate of incidence among gay men for both pneumocystis and Kaposi's sarcoma. The resulting immune disorder was soon identified as AIDS for the first time.
Most information obtained via Wikipedia; revised (when necessary) and confirmed through various sources.